2019年英语二阅读理解Text1

第一段

Unlike so-called basic emotions such as sadness, fear, and anger, guilt emerges a little later, in conjunction with a child’s growing grasp of social and moral norms. Children aren’t born knowing how to say “I’m sorry”, rather, they learn over time that such statements appease parents and friends----and their own consciences. This is why researchers generally regard so-called moral guilt, in the right amount, to be a good thing.

单词&词组

  1. in the popular imagination  在大众眼中

  2. bad rap  口碑差,无理指责

  3. emerge  v. 出现;显露

  4. in conjunction with  与……一起,连同

  5. grasp  n. 理解,领会

  6. norms  n. 规范,行为标准

  7. appease  v. 安抚,抚慰

  8. conscience  n. 道德心;良心

  9. in the right amount  适量的

本段翻译

与悲伤、恐惧和愤怒等所谓的基本情绪不同,内疚感的出现要晚一点,这与孩子对社会和道德规范的掌握程度越来越高有关。孩子们并不是生来就知道如何说“对不起”,相反,随着时间的推移,他们学会了这样的话可以安抚父母和朋友——以及他们自己的良心。这就是为什么研究人员通常认为所谓的道德内疚,在适当的数量,是一件好事。

第二段

In the popular imagination, of course, guilt still gets a bad rap. It evokes Freud’s ideas and religious hang-ups. More important, guilt is deeply uncomfortable---it's the emotional equivalent of wearing a jacket weighted with stones. Who would inflict it upon a child? Yet this understanding is outdated. “There has been a kind of revival or a rethinking about what guilt is and what role guilt can serve,” Vaish says, adding that this revival is part of a larger recognition that emotions aren’t binary feelings that may be advantageous in one context may be harmful in another. Jealousy and anger, for example, may have evolved to alert us to important inequalities. Too much happiness (think mania) can be destructive.

单词&词组

  1. equivalent  n. 相等的东西

  2. revival  n. 复苏,复兴

  3. destructive  a. 破坏性的,引起破坏的

本段翻译

当然,在大众的想象中,内疚感仍然会受到谴责。它唤起了弗洛伊德的思想和宗教障碍。更重要的是,内疚感让人深感不安,这就像穿着一件装满石头的夹克。谁会把它强加给一个孩子?然而,这种理解已经过时了。“关于内疚是什么以及内疚能起到什么作用,有一种复兴或重新思考,”维什说,他补充说,这种复兴是一种更大的认识的一部分,即情绪不是二元情感,在一种情况下可能是有利的,在另一种情况下可能是有害的。例如,嫉妒和愤怒可能已经演变成提醒我们注意重要的不平等。太多的快乐(想想躁狂)可能是毁灭性的。

第三段

And guilt, by prompting us to think more deeply about our goodness, can encourage humans to atone for errors and fix relationships. Guilt, in other words, can help hold a cooperative species together. It is a kind of social glue.

单词&词组

  1. prompt  v. 促使,导致

  2. species  n. 物种

  3. hold... together  使保持团结

  4. glue  n. 胶水,胶

本段翻译

内疚感促使我们更深入地思考我们的善良,从而鼓励人类弥补错误,修复人际关系。换言之,内疚感有助于将合作物种团结在一起。它是一种社会粘合剂。

第四段

Viewed in this light, guilt is an opportunity. Work by Tina Malti, a psychology professor at the University of Toronto, suggests that guilt may compensate for an emotional deficiency. In a number of studies, Malti and others have shown that guilt and sympathy (and its close cousin empathy) may represent different pathways to cooperation and sharing. Some kids who are low in sympathy may make up for that shortfall by experiencing more guilt, which can rein in their nastier impulses. And vice versa: High sympathy can substitute for low guilt.

单词&词组

  1. compensate  v. 补偿,弥补

  2. deficiency  n. 缺乏;缺陷

  3. represent  v. 代表

  4. pathway  n. 路径,途径

  5. make up for  弥补,补偿

  6. rein in  严格控制,抑制

  7. impulse  n. 冲动

  8. vice versa  反之亦然

  9. substitute for  替代,取代

本段翻译

从这个角度来看,内疚是一个机会。多伦多大学心理学教授蒂娜·马尔蒂的研究表明,内疚感可以弥补情感缺陷。在一些研究中,马尔蒂和其他人已经表明,内疚和同情(以及它的近亲同理心)可能代表着不同的合作和分享途径。一些缺乏同情心的孩子可能会经历更多的负罪感来弥补这一不足,这样可以控制他们更讨厌的冲动。反之亦然:高同情心可以代替低内疚感。

第五段

In a 2014 study, for example, Malti and a colleague looked at 244 children, ages 4, 8, and 12. Using caregiver assessments and the children’s self-observations, they rated each child’s overall sympathy level and his or her tendency to feel negative emotions (like guilt and sadness) after moral transgressions. Then the kids were handed stickers and chocolate coins, and given a chance to share them with an anonymous child. For the low-sympathy kids, how much they shared appeared to turn on how inclined they were to feel guilty. The guilt-prone ones shared more, even though they hadn’t magically become more sympathetic to the other child’s deprivation.

单词&词组

  1. assessment  n. 评价,看法

  2. transgression  n. 越轨,违背道德

  3. anonymous  a. 名字不公开的,匿名的

  4. turn on 依靠,取决于

  5. inclined  a. 有……的倾向

  6. prone  a. 有做……倾向的,易于遭受……的

  7. deprivation  n. 匮乏,缺少

本段翻译

例如,在2014年的一项研究中,马尔蒂和他的同事研究了244名4岁、8岁和12岁的儿童。通过照顾者的评估和孩子们的自我观察,他们评估了每个孩子的总体同情水平,以及他或她在违反道德行为后产生负面情绪(如内疚和悲伤)的倾向。然后给孩子们一些贴纸和巧克力硬币,并让他们有机会和一个匿名的孩子分享。对于低同情心的孩子来说,他们分享多少似乎决定了他们有多倾向于感到内疚。那些容易内疚的孩子分享的更多,尽管他们并没有奇迹般地对另一个孩子的被剥夺更加同情。

第六段

“That’s good news.”Malti says. “We can be prosocial because of the empathetic proclivity, or because we caused harm and we feel regret.”

单词&词组

  1. prosocial  a. 亲社会的,忠实于既定社会道德准则的

本段翻译

“这是个好消息。”马尔蒂说。“我们可能因为移情倾向而变得亲社会,或者因为我们造成伤害而感到遗憾。”

五道题

21. Researchers think that guilt can be a good thing because it may help______.

[A] regulate a child's basic emotions

[B] improve a child's intellectual ability

[C] foster a child’s moral development

[D] intensity a child's positive feelings

22. According to paragraph 2, many people still consider guilt to be______.

[A] deceptive

[B] burdensome

[C] addictive

[D] inexcusable

23. Vaish hold that the rethinking about guilt comes from an awareness that______.

[A] emotions are context-independent

[B] emotions are socially constructive

[C] emotional stability can benefit health

[D] an emotion can play opposing roles

24. Malti and others have shown that cooperation and sharing ___.

[A] may help correct emotional deficiencies

[B] can result from either sympathy or guilt

[C] can bring about emotional satisfaction

[D] may be the outcome of impulsive acts

25. The word “transgressions” (Para.5) is closest in meaning to _______.

[A] teachings

[B] discussions

[C] restrictions

[D] wrongdoings

参考答案

CBDBD

答案解析

21、根据题干定位到第一段最后This is why researchers generally regard so-called moral guilt, in the right amount, to be a good thing. 由最后一句的this指代词,可知原因在第一段的前几句,可知内疚不是天生的,而是和一个孩子的道德规范有关,是通过后天学习获得的。因此答案是[C]选项。

22、根据题干定位到第二段第一句In the popular imagination, of course, guilt still gets a bad rap. 另外第二句It is deeply uncomfortable—it’s the emotional equivalent of wearing a jacket weighted with stones. 也进一步解释了第一句。由这两句可知许多人认为内疚是不好的,令人不舒服的,让人感觉沉重,就像是衣服口袋里有石头一样,因此答案为[B]选项。

23、根据题干关键词Vaish定位到第二段第四句,根据第四句中的adding that this revival is part of a larger recognition that emotions aren’t binary—feelings that may be advantageous in one context may be harmful in another. 可知这种复兴是更大的认识的一部分,即情绪不是二元情感,在一个情境中有利的情绪,在一个情景中可能是有害的。因此答案是[D]选项。

24、根据题干定位到第四段第三句 In a number of studies, Malti and others have shown that guilt and sympathy may represent different pathways to cooperation and sharing. 根据第三句可知内疚和和同情可能代表了通往合作和分享的不同的路径。可以得出,答案是[B]选项。

25、根据题干中的关键词transgressions可以定位到第五段第二句feel negative emotions after moral transgressions. 可以看到negative emotions 来源于transgressions. 而negative emotions表示负面情绪是贬义的,因此对比4个选项,可以得出答案是[D]选项。

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2019年英语二阅读理解Text1.pdf

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文章目录
  • 第一段
    • 单词 词组
    • 本段翻译
  • 第二段
    • 单词 词组
    • 本段翻译
  • 第三段
    • 单词 词组
    • 本段翻译
  • 第四段
    • 单词 词组
    • 本段翻译
  • 第五段
    • 单词 词组
    • 本段翻译
  • 第六段
    • 单词 词组
    • 本段翻译
  • 五道题
    • 参考答案
    • 答案解析
  • 文章整理于网络收集,转载请说明来源
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