Section I Use of English
  Read the following text. Choose the best word (s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
  why do people read negative Internet comments and do other things that will obviously be painful?Because humans have an inherent need to 1 uncertainty,according to a recent study in Psychological Science. The new research reveals that the need to know is so strong that people wiill 2 to satisfy their curiosity even when it is clear the answer will 3.
  In a series of four experiments, behavioral scientists at the University of Chicago and the Wisconsin School of Business tested students' willingness to 4 themselves to unpleasant stimuli in an effort to satisfy curiosity. For one 5 each participant was shown a pile of pens that the researcher claimed were from a previous experiment. The twist?Half of the pens would 6 an electric shock when clicked.
  Twenty-seven students were told which pens were electrified;another twenty-seven were told only that some were electrified 7 left alone in the room, the students who did not know which ones would shock them clicked more pens and incurred more shocks than the students who knew what would 8 .Subsequent experiments reproduced this effect with other stimuli, 9 the sound of fingernails on a chalkboard and photographs of disgusting insects.
  The drive to 10 is deeply rooted in humans,much the same as the basic drives for 11 or shelter,says Christopher Hsee of the University of Chicago. Curiosity is often considered a good instinct-it can 12 new scientific advances, for instance-but sometimes such 13 can backfire.The insight that curiosity can drive you to do 14 things is a profound one.Unhealthy curiosity is possible to 15 ,however. In a final experiment,participants who were encouraged to 16 how they would feel after viewing an unpleasant picture were less likely to 17 to see such an image.These results suggest that imagining the 18 of following through on one's curiosity ahead of time can help determine 19 it is worth the endeavor. Thinking about long-term 20 is key to reducing the possible negative effects of curiosity."Hsee says.In other words,don't read online comments.
  1. A.resolveB.protectC.discussD.ignore
  7. A.UnlessB.IfC.ThoughD.When
  8. A.happenB.continueC.disappearD.change
  9. A.rather thanB.such asC.regardless ofD.owing to
  10. A.disagreeB. forgiveC.forgetD.discover
  11. A.payB.marriageC.foodD.schooling
  12.A.begin withB.rest onC.learn fromD.lead to
  13.A. withdrawalB. inquiryC .persistenceD.diligence
  14.A.self-destiuctiveB.self-reliantC. self-evidentD.self-deceptive
  17. A.rememberB.chooseC.promiseD.pretend
  18. A.reliefB.planC.outcomeD.duty
  19.A. whetherB.whyC.whereD.how
  20. A.limitationsB.investmentsC.strategiesD.consequences
  Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension
  Part A
  Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)
  Text 1
  It is curious that Stephen Koziatek feels almost as though he has to justify his efforts to give his students a better future.
  Mr.Koziatek is part of something pioneering. He is a teacher at a New Hampshire high school where learning is not something of books and tests and mechanical memorization, but practical. When did it become accepted wisdom that students should be able to name the 13th president of the United States but be utterly overwhelmed by a broken bike chain?
  As Koziatek knows,there is learning in just about everything. Nothing is necessarily gained by forcing students to learn geometry at a graffitied desk stuck with generations of discarded chewing gum. They can also learn geometry by assembling a bicycle.
  But he’s also found a kind of insidious prejudice. Working with your hands is seen as almost a mark of inferiority.Schools in the family of vocational education “have that stereotype..that it’s for kids who can’t make it academically,”he says.
  On one hand,that viewpoint is a logical product of America’s evolution.Manufacturing is not the economic engine that it once was.The job security that the US economy once offered to high school graduates has largely evaporated.More education is the new principle.We want more for our kids,and rigitfully so.
  But the headlong push into bachelor’s degrees for all -and the subtle devaluing of anything less-misses an important point:That’s not the only thing the American economy neds.Yes,a bachelor’s degree opens more doors.But even now,54 percent of the jobs in the country are middle-skill jobs,such as construction and high-skill manufacturing.But only 44 percent of workers are adequately trained.
  In other words,at a time when the working class has turned the country on its political head,frustrated that the opportunity that once defined America is vanishing,one obvious solution is staring us in the face.There is a gap in working-class jobs,but the workers who need those jobs most aren’t equipped to do them.Koziatek’s Manchester School of Technology High School is trying to fill that gap.
  Koziatek’s school is a wake-up call.When education becomes one-size-fits-all,it risks overlooking a nation’s diversiy of gifts.
  21.A brokan bike chain is mentioned to show students’ lack of______.
  A.mechanical memorization
  B.academic training
  C.practical ability
  D.pioneering spirit
  22.There existsthe prejudice that vocational education is for kids who______.
  A.are financially disadvantaged
  B.are not academically successful
  C.have a stereotyped mind
  D.have no career motivation
  23.We can infer from Paragraph 5 that high school graduates______.
  A.are entitled to more “ducational privileges
  B.are reluctant to work in manufacturing
  C.used to have more job opportunities
  D.used to have big financial concerns
  24.The headlong push into bacheloi’s degrees for all_____.
  A.helps create a lot of middle-skill jobs
  B.may narrow the gap in working-class jobs
  C.is expected to yield a better-trained workforce
  D.indicates the overvaluing of higher education
  25.The author’s attitude toward Koziatek’s school can be described as_____.
  21. 答案 C practical ability
  这是一道细节题,根据题干关键词可定位至第二段最后一句话,意思是”什么时候这种观点变得可接受了呢?学生应该能够说出美国第十三任总统的名字,但是却完全对坏了的自行车链束手无策”。从作者使用问句的形式就可判断出作者并不接受这种观点,即学生只学会书本上的知识而不具备实际能力。再结合上一句话即本段第二句话,Mr Koziatek是New Hampshire高中的一名老师,在这所学校,学习不只是书本上的知识,或者是为了考试,也不是为了机械化的记忆,而是为了实际的技能。能看出,作者认为学生们缺少的是实际技能,所以答案是C practical ability.
  22. 答案 B are not academically successful
  这是一道具体细节题,根据题干关键词职业教育对孩子存在的偏见可定位至第四段最后一句,意思是“在很多职业化教育的学校中,有这样一种老套的思想,那就是,职业教育是针对那些在学术上不能成功的那些孩子的。”根据这句话可确定答案就是B are not academically successful 。其他选项均不符合文意。
  23.答案C used to have more job opportunities
  这是一道细节推断题,根据题干第五段和high school graduates 回到原文定位致第五段第三句,说到美国经济曾经提供给高中毕业生的那种the job security已经在很大程度上evaporated也就是消失了,那说明过去的时候高中毕业生是有职业安全感的,故选C,其他选项都不在定位处,可以排除。
  24.答案D indicate the overvaluing of higher education
  这是一道事实细节题,根据题干内容“the headlong push”找到出处是第六段开头But后,发现后面还有一个and...和其并列,所以主要关注对这两部分的评价,后面有明显的标点:冒号出现,冒号后说that is not the only thing the American economy needs. 可以看出这句话对前面的否定,选项中只有D选项动词overvalue是负面词,而且提到主题词education。故选D。这道题最适合用感情色彩来排除与D相反的其他三个选项。
  25.答案A supportive
  这是一道态度题,放在最末的态度题更倾向于到最后一段找答案。通过定位词Koziatek’s school 看到最后一段也确实提到了,说它是一个wake-up call。也就是在唤醒人们教育不应该是统一的形式,这样会overlooking a nation’s diversity of gifts,也就是忽视人才的差异性。所以可以看出作者是支持的态度。
  While fossil fuels- coal,oil,gas- still generate roughly 85 percent of the world's energy supply,it'sclearer than ever that the future belongs to renewablesources such as wind and solar.The move to renewables is picking up momentumaround the world: They now account for more than half ofnew power sourcesgoing on line.
  Some growth stems from a commitment bygovernments and farsighted Businssesto fundcleanerenergy sources.But increasinglythestoryisabout theplummeting prices of renewables,especially wind and solar.The cost of solarpanels has dropped by 80 percent and the cost of wind turbines by close taone-third in the past eight years.
  In many parts of the world renewable energy is already a principal energy source.In Scotland,for example, wind turbines provide enough electricity to power 95 percent of homes. While the rest of the world takes the lead, notably China and Europe, the United States is also seeing a remarkable shift. In March,for the first time,wind and solar power accounted for more than 10 percent of the power generated in the US,reported the US Energy Information Administration.
  President Trump has underlined fossil fuels - especially coal - as the path to economic growth. In a recent speech in Iowa, he dismissed wind power as an unreliable energy source, But that message did not play well with many in Iowa,where wind turbines dot the fields and provide 36 percent of the state's electricity generation - and where tech giants like Microsoft are being attracted by the availability of clean energy to power their data centers.
  The question “what happens when the wind doesn't blow or the sun doesn'tshine?" has provided a quick put-down for skeptics. But a boost in the storage apacity of batteries is making their ability to keep power flowing around the clock more likely.
  The advance is driven in par by vehicle manufacturers, who are placing big bets on battery-powered electric vehicles. Although electric cars are still a rarity on roads now. this massive investment could change the picture rapidly in coming years.
  While there's a long way to go,the trend lines for renewables are spiking. The pace of change in energy sources appears to be speeding up perhaps: just in time to have a meaningful effect in slowing climate change.What Washington does-or doesn't do- to promote alternative energy may mean less and less a time of a global shift in thought.
  26.The word "plummeting"(Line 3,Para.2)is closest in meaning to ______
  27. According to Paragraph 3,the use of renewable energy in America ______
  A. is progressing notably
  B. is as extensive as in Europe
  C. faces many challenges
  D. has proved to be impractical
  28. It can be learned that in Iowa,
  A. wind is a widely used energy source
  B. wind energy has replaced fossil fuels
  C. tech giants are investing in clean energy
  D. there is a shortage of clean energy supply
  29. Which of the following is true about clean energy according to Paragraphs 5&6?A. Its application has boosted battery storage.B. It is commonly used in car manufacturing.C. Its continuous supply is becoming a reality.D. Its sustainable exploitation will remain difficult. 30. It can be inferred from the last paragraph that renewable energy _____.
  A. will bring the US closer to other countries
  B. will accelerate global environmental change
  C. is not really encouraged by the US government
  D. is not competitive enough with regard to its cost
  30. It can be inferred from the last paragraph that renewable energy _____.
  A. will bring the US closer to other countries
  B. will accelerate global environmental change
  C. is not really encouraged by the US government
  D. is not competitive enough with regard to its cost
  26.答案 C falling
  这是一道词义句意题,要想知道plummeting 的意思,首先要回到原文找线索,即plummeting所在的句子以及上下句,由原文可知,plummeting所在句子是在说现在例如风能和太阳能这样的可再生资源的价格的问题,plummeting是修饰可再生资源的价格的,接着二段最后一句就在用具体数字来证明可再生资源的成本在下降,如太阳能成本下降了百分之八十,风能也降到三分之一,由此可知,可再生资源的成本在下降,plummeting的含义是下降的意思。所以选择C falling。
  27. 答案 A is progressing notably
  28. 答案 A wind is a widely used energy source
  29.答案 C its continuous supply is becoming a reality
  这是一道是非细节题,根据题干给出的段落位置,5-6两段和主题词clean energy,回到原文的第5-6段,这两段都不长,第五段出现了But后讲到电池容量的提升a boost in the storage,与A选项不符,并不是因果关系,故排除;B选项说道广泛用在制造业也不符合原文第六段第一句;而D选项和原文第六段最后一句是语义相反的,故也排除;正确选项C是和这句话语义一致的,也是和全文主题一致的,故为正确答案。
  30.答案C is not really encouraged by the US government
  这是一道细节推断题,题干问“根据最后一段可以推断出来可再生能源怎么了”,回到原文最后一段第一句就表明尽管还有很长一段路要走,可再生能源发展的趋势在增强。后面也提到改变的节奏在加快,对slowing气候变化有meaningful effect,所以可以看出B选项accelerate...是不对的,D选项中提到的价格不具有竞争力不在本段当中,也应排除。剩下的两个选项都提到了美国,就应该重点看最后一句,最后一句提到华盛顿政府做或不做什么都may mean less and less...所以可以看出美国不应该是和其他国家更近,排除A,所以选C,美国不是真正支持可再生能源的。
  Text 3
  The power and ambition of the giants of the digital economy is astonishing —Amazon has just announced the purchase of the upmarket grocery chain Whole Foods for $13.5bn, but two years ago Facebook paid even more than that to acquire the WhatsApp messaging service, which doesn’t have any physical product at all. What WhatsApp offered Facebook was an intricate and finely detailed web of its users’ friendships and social lives.
  Facebook promised the European commission then that it would not link phone numbers to Facebook identities, but it broke the promise almost as soon as the deal went through. Even without knowing what was in the messages, the knowledge of who sent them and to whom was enormously revealing and still could be. What political journalist, what party whip, would not want to know the makeup of the WhatsApp groups in which Theresa May’s enemies are currently plotting? It may be that the value of Whole Foods to Amazon is not so much the 460 shops ft owns, but the records of which customers have purchased what.
  Competition law appears to be the only way to address these imbalances of power. But it is clumsy. For one thing, it is very slow compared to the pace of change within the digital economy. By the time a problem has been addressed and remedied it may have vanished in the marketplace, to be replaced by new abuses of power. But there is a deeper conceptual problem, too. Competition law as presently interpreted deals with financial disadvantage to consumers and this is not obvious when the users of these services don’t pay for them. The users of their services are not their customers. That would be the people who buy advertising from them — and Facebook and Google, the two virtual giants, dominate digital advertising to the disadvantage of all other media and entertainment companies.
  The product they’re selling is data, and we, the users, convert our lives to data for the benefit of the digital giants. Just as some ants farm the bugs called aphids for the honeydew they produce whe
  31.According to Paragraph1,Facebook acquired WhatsApp for its 。
  C.physical assets
  D.quality service
  32.Linking phone numbers to Faccbook identities may
  A.worsen political disputes
  B.mess up customer records
  C.pose a risk to Facebook users
  D.mislead the European commission
  33.According to the author,competition law
  A.should serve the new market powers
  B.may worsen the economic imbalancens
  C.should not provide just one legal solution
  D.cannot keep pace with the changing market
  34.Competition law as presently interpreted can hardly protect Facebook nsers
  A.they are no defined as customers
  B.they are not financially reliable
  C.these rvices aregenerally digital
  D.the services are paid for by advertisers
  35.The ants analogy is used to llustrate
  A.a win-win business model between digital giants
  B.a typical competition pattem among digital giants
  C.the benefits provided for digital giants' customers
  D.the relationship between digital giants and their users
  31. 答案 [B]user information
  32. 答案[C]pose a risk to Facebook users
  解析:细节题。根据题干关键词linking the phone number定位第二段第一句。该句提到Facebook向欧洲委员会承诺不会把用户的电话号与Facebook的身份认证连系到一起,但是协议通过之后Facebook立马失信。接下来提到“甚至都不清楚信息里面都有什么,也不知谁发的消息,发送的目的又是什么”。因此,可能会给用户造成风险。因此C项符合文意。
  33. 答案 [D]cannot keep pace with the changing market
  解析:细节题。根据题干关键词competition law 定位到第三段第一句。该句指出“竞争法似乎成为解决这些不平等权力的唯一办法,但是此法案太过笨拙”。下一句提到“一方面,相比于数据经济变化的速度,此法案发展是非常缓慢的”。由此可知,该法案跟不上当前市场变化的步伐。因此D项为正确答案。
  34. 答案[D]the services are paid for by advertisers.
  解析:根据题目中的because 可确定为因果细节题。题干中的信息出现在第三段后半部分,是题目中的原词 competition law as presently interpreted,而原因在其后面的句子。下文写到,the users of their services are not,读到这里的not,一定要找而是谁。继续读下一句,That would be the people who buy advertising from them…,与选项对应,可得出[D]the services are paid for by advertisers。
  35. 答案[D]the relationship between digital giants and their users.
  解析:根据题目中is used to illustrate可判断为例证题,要找到the ants analogy论据所证明的论点;论点在论据之前,因此先找到论据the ants analogy,再找到论据前的论点句。所以本题定位到最后一段的第一句,The product …is data,and we…convert our lives to data…。此句中,data即digital giants,we 即 users。因此答案为[D]the relationship between digital giants and their users.
  To combat the trap of putting a premium on being busy, Cal Newport,author of Deep Work: Rules for Focused Success in a Distracted World,recommends building a habit of “deep work” - the ability to fucus without distraction.
  There are a number of approaches to mastering the art of deep work - be it lengthy retreats dedicated to a specific task; developing a daily ritual;or taking a “journalistic” approach to seizing moments of deep work when you can throughout the day. Whichever approach,the key is to determine your length of focus time and stick to it.
  Newport also recommends “deep scheduling” to combat constant interruptions and get more done in less time. “At any given point, I should have deep work scheduled for roughly the next month.Once on the calendar, I protect this time like I would a doctor’s appointment or important meeting,” he writes.
  Another approach to getting more done in less time is to rethink how you prioritise your day-in particular how we craft our to-do lists.Tim Harford, author of Messy: The Power of Disorder to Transform Our Lives, points to a study in the early 1980s that divided undergraduates into two groups: some were advised to set out monthly goals and study activities; others were told to plan activities and goals in much more detail, day by day.
  While the researchers assumed that the well-structured daily plans would be most effective when it come to the execution of tasks, they were wrong: the detailed daily plans demotivated students. Harford argues that inevitable distractions often render the daily to-do list ineffective,while leaving room for improvisation in such a list can reap the best results.
  In order to make the most of our focus and energy, we also need to embrace downtime, or as Newport suggests, “be lazy.”
  “Idleness is not just a vacation, an indulgence or a vice; it is as indispensable to the brain as vitamin D is to the body...[idleness] is ,paradoxically, necessary to getting any work done,” he argues.
  Srini Pillay, an assistant professor of psychiatry at Harvard Medical School, believes this counterintuitive link between downtime and productivity may be due to the way our brains operate. When our brains switch between being focused and unfocused on a task, they tend to be more efficient.
  “What people don’t realise is that in order to complete these tasks they need to use both the focus and unfocus circuits in their brain,” says Pillay.
  36. The key to mastering the art of deep work is to______
  A. seize every minute to work
  B. list you immediate tasks
  C. make specific daily plans
  D. Keep to your focus time
  37. The study in the early 1980s cited by Harford shows that
  A. students are hardly motivated by monthly goals
  B. detailed plans may not be as fruitful as expected
  C. distractions may actually increase efficiency
  D. daily schedules arc indispensable to studying
  38. According to Newport, idleness is __________-
  A. a desirable mental state for busy people
  B. a major contributor to physical health
  C. an effective way to save time and energy
  0. an essential factor in accomplishing any work
  39. Pillay believes that our brain’s shift between being focused and infocused ______
  A. can bring about greater efficiency
  B. can result in psychological well-being
  C. is driven by task urgency
  D. is aimed at better balance in work
  40. This text is mainly about_____
  A. approaches to getting more done in less time
  B. Ways to relieve the tension of busy life
  C. The key to eliminating distractions
  D. The cause of the lack of focus time
  36. 答案[D]keep to your focus time
  解析:细节题。根据题干的mastering the art of deep work定位到第二段首句。该句指出“有很多种掌握深度工作的方法-不论是专注于指定工作时长时间的后退,或者养成惯例,还是当你一天有闲暇之余采用纪实的方式捕捉深度工作的瞬间”。接着提到“不论是那种方式,关键在于确定你的专注力时间长度并保持专注”。由此可知,D项为正确答案。
  37. 答案[B]detailed plans may not be as fruitful as expected
  38. 答案[D]an essential factor in accomplishing any work.
  解析:根据题目Newport得出本题目为细节题中的文中人物观点题。根据题干中的idleness可定位到倒数第三段,idleness is not,读到这里依然需要看下文,下面提到it is as…as…,is necessary to getting any work done。再对应选项,可直接选出[D]an essential factor in accomplishing any work。
  39. 答案[A]can bring about greater efficiency.
  解析:根据题目中的Pillay believes 可得出本题目为细节题中的文中人物观点题型。根据题目中的信息,可以定位到倒数第二段最后一句,明确指出they tend to be more efficient。然后对应选项得出[A]can bring about greater efficiency。
  40. 答案[A]approaches to getting more done in less time.
  解析:根据题目的mainly about可知为文章主旨题,首先可以通过题目的复现内容找与文章主旨有关的词汇,题目中反复出现了focus内容,可判断与人们的注意力有。其次,文章主旨一般在开篇第一段或第二段会出现,第一段引用Cal Newport的观点指出focus without distraction话题,第二段就提到了主题approaches to mastering thd art of deep work,此刻主题已明确,并且第四段有明显的证明another approach。所以本题选[A]approaches to getting more done in less time。
  Part B
  Read the following text and answer the questions by choosing the most suitable subheading from the list A-G for each of the numbered paragraphs(41-45).There are two extra subheadings which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET.
  41.选B。该小标题需要涵盖三段内容。第一段开始说到你想跟陌生人说话,但是“it just won’t come out”,提到说话说不出来,随后直接出现我的建议“My advice:just get it out“,即去说。所以选B:Just say it去说
  42,选F。该小标题下第一段第一句话就说了你时间有限“you have limited time”,然后说到如果陷到寒暄当中“hi,hello,how are you, what is going on”会让对话没法令人印象深刻。下一段“So”表明结论,去问更多个人问题“personal questions”,所以选F:Skip the small talk跳过寒暄
  43.选D。第一句话就说到了第一次交谈要找到共同点“have in common”,从这个共同点“that point”来开展对话“build the conversation”,所以选D:find the “me too”s找到共同点
  44.选G。第一段先举例,说你跟人讲心事时,别人分心干别的。然后下一段“So”表明结论,人家跟跟你沟通,你要全心投入“wholeheartedly”。所以选G:Pay a unique complement专注
  Section III Translation
  Translate the following text from English into Chinese. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET. (15 points)
  A fifth grader gets a homework assignment to select his future career path from a list of occupations. He ticks “astronaut” but quickly adds “scientist” to the list and selects it as well. The boy is convinced that if he reads enough, he can explore as many career paths as he likes. And so he reads—everything from encyclopedias to science fiction novels. He reads so passionately that his parents have to institute a “no reading policy” at the dinner table.
  That boy was Bill Gates, and he hasn’t stopped reading yet—not even after becoming one of the most successful people on the planet. Nowadays, his reading material has changed from science fiction and reference books: recently, he revealed that he reads at least 50 nonfiction books a year. Gates chooses nonfiction titles because they explain how the world works. “Each book opens up new avenues of knowledge to explore”, Gates says.
  Section IV Writing
  Part A
  Suppose you have to cancel your travel plan and will not be able to visit Professor Smith. Write him an email to
  1) Apologize and explain the situation, and
  2) Suggest a future meeting
  You should write neatly on the ANWSER SHEET.
  Do not sign you own name at the end of the letter, use “Li Ming ” instead.
  Do not write the address .(10 points)
  Dear Prof.Smith,
  I am sorry to tell you that I have to cancel my travel plan to your city for some reasons,thus I am afraid that I couldn't visit you according to the due cource.So I am writing for the purpose of extending my sincere apology to you.
  Actually, I miss you very much, but I received a notice suddenly that I have to attend an exam if I would love to apply for an opportunity for further study abroad.Nevertheless I haven't prepared for it very well Hence I have to spend more time and energy on it.
  Please accpet my hearfelt apology again! I am really sorry for any inconvenience I caused. And I am honorable to ask if I could make an another appointment with you.I am looking forward to your response at your earliest convenience. Regards !
  Yours faithfully,
  Li MingePart B
  48. Directions:
  Write an essay based on the chart below. In your writing, you should
  1) interpret the chart, and
  2) give your comments.
  You should write about 150 words on the ANSWER SHEET.(15 points)


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