Section I Use of English
Read the following text. Choose the best word (s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
Trust is a tricky business. On the one hand, it's a necessary condition 1 many worthwhile things: child care, friendships, etc. On the other hand, putting your 2, in the wrong place often carries a high 3.
4, why do we trust at all? Well, because it feels good. 5 people place their trust in an individual or an institution, their brains release oxytocin, a hormone that 6 pleasurable feelings and triggers the herding instruct that prompts humans to 7 with one another. Scientists have found that exposure 8 this hormone puts us in a trusting 9: In a Swiss study, researchers sprayed oxytocin into the noses of half the subjects; those subjects were ready to lend significantly higher amounts of money to strangers than were their 10 who inhaled something else.
11 for us, we also have a sixth sense for dishonesty that may 12 us. A Canadian study found that children as young as 14 months can differentiate 13 a credible person and a dishonest one. Sixty toddlers were each 14 to an adult tester holding a plastic container. The tester would ask, “What’s in here?” before looking into the container, smiling, and exclaiming, “Wow!” Each subject was then invited to look 15. Half of them found a toy; the other half 16 the container was empty-and realized the tester had 17 them.
Among the children who had not been tricked, the majority were 18 to cooperate with the tester in learning a new skill, demonstrating that they trusted his leadership. 19, only five of the 30 children paired with the “20”tester participated in a follow-up activity.
1. [A] on [B] like [C] for [D] from
2. [A] faith [B] concern [C] attention [D] interest
3. [A] benefit [B] debt [C] hope [D] price
4. [A] Therefore [B] Then [C] Instead [D] Again
5. [A]Until [B] Unless [C] Although [D] When
6. [A] selects [B] produces [C] applies [D] maintains
7. [A] consult [B] compete [C] connect [D] compare
8. [A] at [B] by [C]of [D]to
9. [A] context [B] mood [C] period [D] circle
10.[A] counterparts [B] substitutes [C] colleagues [D]supporters
11.[A] Funny [B] Lucky [C] Odd [D] Ironic
12.[A] monitor [B] protect [C] surprise [D] delight
13.[A] between [B] within [C] toward [D] over
14.[A] transferred [B] added [C] introduced [D] entrusted
15.[A] out [B] back [C] around [D] inside
16.[A] discovered [B] proved [C] insisted [D] .remembered
17.[A] betrayed [B]wronged [C] fooled [D] mocked
18.[A] forced [B] willing [C] hesitant [D] entitled
19.[A] In contrast [B] As a result [C] On the whole [D] For instance
20.[A] inflexible [B] incapable [C] unreliable [D] unsuitable
Section II Reading Comprehension
Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)
Among the annoying challenges facing the middle class is one that will probably go unmentioned in the next presidential campaign: What happens when the robots come for their jobs?
Don't dismiss that possibility entirely. About half of U.S. jobs are at high risk of being automated, according to a University of Oxford study, with the middle class disproportionately squeezed. Lower-income jobs like gardening or day care don't appeal to robots. But many middle-class occupations-trucking, financial advice, software engineering — have aroused their interest, or soon will. The rich own the robots, so they will be fine.
This isn't to be alarmist. Optimists point out that technological upheaval has benefited workers in the past. The Industrial Revolution didn't go so well for Luddites whose jobs were displaced by mechanized looms, but it eventually raised living standards and created more jobs than it destroyed. Likewise, automation should eventually boost productivity, stimulate demand by driving down prices, and free workers from hard, boring work. But in the medium term, middle-class workers may need a lot of help adjusting.
The first step, as Erik Brynjolfsson and Andrew McAfee argue in The Second Machine Age, should be rethinking education and job training. Curriculums —from grammar school to college- should evolve to focus less on memorizing facts and more on creativity and complex communication. Vocational schools should do a better job of fostering problem-solving skills and helping students work alongside robots. Online education can supplement the traditional kind. It could make extra training and instruction affordable. Professionals trying to acquire new skills will be able to do so without going into debt.
The challenge of coping with automation underlines the need for the U.S. to revive its fading business dynamism: Starting new companies must be made easier. In previous eras of drastic technological change, entrepreneurs smoothed the transition by dreaming up ways to combine labor and machines. The best uses of 3D printers and virtual reality haven't been invented yet. The U.S. needs the new companies that will invent them.
Finally, because automation threatens to widen the gap between capital income and labor income, taxes and the safety net will have to be rethought. Taxes on low-wage labor need to be cut, and wage subsidies such as the earned income tax credit should be expanded: This would boost incomes, encourage work, reward companies for job creation, and reduce inequality.
Technology will improve society in ways big and small over the next few years, yet this will be little comfort to those who find their lives and careers upended by automation. Destroying the machines that are coming for our jobs would be nuts. But policies to help workers adapt will be indispensable.
21.Who will be most threatened by automation?
[A] Leading politicians.
22 .Which of the following best represent the author’s view?
[A] Worries about automation are in fact groundless.
[B]Optimists' opinions on new tech find little support.
[C]Issues arising from automation need to be tackled
[D]Negative consequences of new tech can be avoided
23.Education in the age of automation should put more emphasis on
[A] creative potential.
24.The author suggests that tax policies be aimed at
[A] encouraging the development of automation.
[B]increasing the return on capital investment.
[C]easing the hostility between rich and poor.
[D]preventing the income gap from widening.
25.In this text, the author presents a problem with
[A] opposing views on it.
[B]possible solutions to it.
[C]its alarming impacts.
[D]its major variations.
A new survey by Harvard University finds more than two-thirds of young Americans disapprove of President Trump’s use of Twitter. The implication is that Millennials prefer news from the White House to be filtered through other source, Not a president’s social media platform.
Most Americans rely on social media to check daily headlines. Yet as distrust has risen toward all media, people may be starting to beef up their media literacy skills. Such a trend is badly needed. During the 2016 presidential campaign, nearly a quarter of web content shared by Twitter users in the politically critical state of Michigan was fake news, according to the University of Oxford. And a survey conducted for BuzzFeed News found 44 percent of Facebook users rarely or never trust news from the media giant.
Young people who are digital natives are indeed becoming more skillful at separating fact from fiction in cyberspace. A Knight Foundation focus-group survey of young people between ages 14and24 found they use “distributed trust” to verify stories. They cross-check sources and prefer news from different perspectives—especially those that are open about any bias. “Many young people assume a great deal of personal responsibility for educating themselves and actively seeking out opposing viewpoints,” the survey concluded.
Such active research can have another effect. A 2014 survey conducted in Australia, Britain, and the United States by the University of Wisconsin-Madison found that young people’s reliance on social media led to greater political engagement.
Social media allows users to experience news events more intimately and immediately while also permitting them to re-share news as a projection of their values and interests. This forces users to be more conscious of their role in passing along information. A survey by Barna research group found the top reason given by Americans for the fake news phenomenon is “reader error,” more so than made-up stories or factual mistakes in reporting. About a third say the problem of fake news lies in “misinterpretation or exaggeration of actual news” via social media. In other words, the choice to share news on social media may be the heart of the issue. “This indicates there is a real personal responsibility in counteracting this problem,” says Roxanne Stone, editor in chief at Barna Group.
So when young people are critical of an over-tweeting president, they reveal a mental discipline in thinking skills – and in their choices on when to share on social media.
26. According to the Paragraphs 1 and 2, many young Americans cast doubts on
[A] the justification of the news-filtering practice.
[B] people’s preference for social media platforms.
[C] the administrations ability to handle information.
[D] social media was a reliable source of news.
27. The phrase “beer up”(Line 2, Para. 2) is closest in meaning to
28. According to the knight foundation survey, young people
[A] tend to voice their opinions in cyberspace.
[B] verify news by referring to diverse resources.
[C] have s strong sense of responsibility.
[D] like to exchange views on “distributed trust”
29. The Barna survey found that a main cause for the fake news problem is
[A] readers outdated values.
[B] journalists’ biased reporting
[C] readers’ misinterpretation
[D] journalists’ made-up stories.
30. Which of the following would be the best title for the text?
[A] A Rise in Critical Skills for Sharing News Online
[B] A Counteraction Against the Over-tweeting Trend
[C] The Accumulation of Mutual Trust on Social Media.
[D] The Platforms for Projection of Personal Interests.
Any fair-minded assessment of the dangers of the deal between Britain's National Health Service (NHS) and DeepMind must start by acknowledging that both sides mean well. DeepMind is one of the leading artificial intelligence (AI) companies in the world. The potential of this work applied to healthcare is very great, but it could also lead to further concentration of power in the tech giants. It Is against that background that the information commissioner, Elizabeth Denham, has issued her damning verdict against the Royal Free hospital trust under the NHS, which handed over to DeepMind the records of 1.6 million patients In 2015 on the basis of a vague agreement which took far too little account of the patients' rights and their expectations of privacy.
DeepMind has almost apologized. The NHS trust has mended its ways. Further arrangements- and there may be many-between the NHS and DeepMind will be carefully scrutinised to ensure that all necessary permissions have been asked of patients and all unnecessary data has been cleaned. There are lessons about informed patient consent to learn. But privacy is not the only angle in this case and not even the most important. Ms Denham chose to concentrate the blame on the NHS trust, since under existing law it “controlled” the data and DeepMind merely “processed" it. But this distinction misses the point that it is processing and aggregation, not the mere possession of bits, that gives the data value.
The great question is who should benefit from the analysis of all the data that our lives now generate. Privacy law builds on the concept of damage to an individual from identifiable knowledge about them. That misses the way the surveillance economy works. The data of an individual there gains its value only when it is compared with the data of countless millions more.
The use of privacy law to curb the tech giants in this instance feels slightly maladapted. This practice does not address the real worry. It is not enough to say that the algorithms DeepMind develops will benefit patients and save lives. What matters is that they will belong to a private monopoly which developed them using public resources. If software promises to save lives on the scale that dugs now can, big data may be expected to behave as a big pharm has done. We are still at the beginning of this revolution and small choices now may turn out to have gigantic consequences later. A long struggle will be needed to avoid a future of digital feudalism. Ms Denham's report is a welcome start.
31.Wha is true of the agreement between the NHS and DeepMind ?
[A] It caused conflicts among tech giants.
[B] It failed to pay due attention to patient’s rights.
[C] It fell short of the latter's expectations
[D] It put both sides into a dangerous situation.
32. The NHS trust responded to Denham's verdict with
[A] empty promises.
[B] tough resistance.
[C] necessary adjustments.
[D] sincere apologies.
33.The author argues in Paragraph 2 that
[A] privacy protection must be secured at all costs.
[B] leaking patients' data is worse than selling it.
[C] making profits from patients' data is illegal.
[D] the value of data comes from the processing of it
34.According to the last paragraph, the real worry arising from this deal is
[A] the vicious rivalry among big pharmas.
[B] the ineffective enforcement of privacy law.
[C] the uncontrolled use of new software.
[D] the monopoly of big data by tech giants.
35.The author's attitude toward the application of AI to healthcare is
The U.S. Postal Service (USPS) continues to bleed red ink. It reported a net loss of $5.6 billion for fiscal 2016, the 10th straight year its expenses have exceeded revenue. Meanwhile, it has more than $120 billion in unfunded liabilities, mostly for employee health and retirement costs. There are many bankruptcies. Fundamentally, the USPS is in a historic squeeze between technological change that has permanently decreased demand for its bread-and-butter product, first-class mail, and a regulatory structure that denies management the flexibility to adjust its operations to the new reality
And interest groups ranging from postal unions to greeting-card makers exert self-interested pressure on the USPS’s ultimate overseer-Congress-insisting that whatever else happens to the Postal Service, aspects of the status quo they depend on get protected. This is why repeated attempts at reform legislation have failed in recent years, leaving the Postal Service unable to pay its bills except by deferring vital modernization.
Now comes word that everyone involved---Democrats, Republicans, the Postal Service, the unions and the system's heaviest users—has finally agreed on a plan to fix the system. Legislation is moving through the House that would save USPS an estimated $28.6 billion over five years, which could help pay for new vehicles, among other survival measures. Most of the money would come from a penny-per-letter permanent rate increase and from shifting postal retirees into Medicare. The latter step would largely offset the financial burden of annually pre-funding retiree health care, thus addressing a long-standing complaint by the USPS and its union.
If it clears the House, this measure would still have to get through the Senate – where someone is bound to point out that it amounts to the bare, bare minimum necessary to keep the Postal Service afloat, not comprehensive reform. There’s no change to collective bargaining at the USPS, a major omission considering that personnel accounts for 80 percent of the agency’s costs. Also missing is any discussion of eliminating Saturday letter delivery. That common-sense change enjoys wide public support and would save the USPS $2 billion per year. But postal special-interest groups seem to have killed it, at least in the House. The emerging consensus around the bill is a sign that legislators are getting frightened about a politically embarrassing short-term collapse at the USPS. It is not, however, a sign that they’re getting serious about transforming the postal system for the 21st century.
36.The financial problem with the USPS is caused partly by
[A]. its unbalanced budget.
[B] .its rigid management.
[C] .the cost for technical upgrading.
[D]. the withdrawal of bank support.
37. According to Paragraph 2, the USPS fails to modernize itself due to
[A]. the interference from interest groups.
[B] .the inadequate funding from Congress.
[C] .the shrinking demand for postal service.
[D] .the incompetence of postal unions.
38.The long-standing complaint by the USPS and its unions can be addressed by
[A] .removing its burden of retiree health care.
[B] .making more investment in new vehicles.
[C] .adopting a new rate-increase mechanism.
[D]. attracting more first-class mail users.
39.In the last paragraph, the author seems to view legislators with
40.Which of the following would be the best title for the text?
[A] .The USPS Starts to Miss Its Good Old Days
[B] .The Postal Service: Keep Away from My Cheese
[C] .The USPS: Chronic Illness Requires a Quick Cure
[D] .The Postal Service Needs More than a Band-Aid
The following paragraphs are given in a wrong order. For Questions 41-45, you are required to reorganize these paragraphs into a coherent article by choosing from the list A-G and filling them into the numbered boxes. Paragraphs C and F have been correctly placed. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
A. In December of 1869, Congress appointed a commission to select a site and prepare plans and cost estimates for a new State Department Building. The commission was also to consider possible arrangements for the War and Navy Departments. To the horror of some who expected a Greek Revival twin of the Treasury Building to be erected on the other side of the White House, the elaborate French Second Empire style design by Alfred Mullett was selected, and construction of a building to house all three departments began in June of 1871.
B. Completed in 1875, the State Department's south wing was the first to be occupied, with its elegant four-story library (completed in 1876), Diplomatic Reception Room, and Secretary's office decorated with carved wood, Oriental rugs, and stenciled wall patterns. The Navy Department moved into the east wing in 1879, where elaborate wall and ceiling stenciling and marquetry floors decorated the office of the Secretary.
C. The State, War, and Navy Building, as it was originally known, housed the three Executive Branch Departments most intimately associated with formulating and conducting the nation's foreign policy in the last quarter of the nineteenth century and the first quarter of the twentieth century-the period when the United States emerged as an international power. The building has housed some of the nation's most significant diplomats and politicians and has been the scene of many historic events.
D. Many of the most celebrated national figures have participated in historical events that have taken place within the EEOB's granite walls. Theodore and Franklin D. Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Lyndon B. Johnson, Gerald Ford, and George H. W. Bush all had offices in this building before becoming president. It has housed 16 Secretaries of the Navy, 21 Secretaries of War, and 24 Secretaries of State. Winston Churchill once walked its corridors and Japanese emissaries met here with Secretary of State Cordell Hull after the bombing of Pearl Harbor.
E. The Eisenhower Executive Office Building (EEOB) commands a unique position in both the national history and the architectural heritage of the United States. Designed by Supervising Architect of the Treasury, Alfred B. Mullett, it was built from 1871 to 1888 to house the growing staffs of the State, War, and Navy Departments, and is considered one of the best examples of French Second Empire architecture in the country.
F. Construction took 17 years as the building slowly rose wing by wing. When the EEOB was finished, it was the largest office building in Washington, with nearly 2 miles of black and white tiled corridors. Almost all of the interior detail is of cast iron or plaster; the use of wood was minimized to insure fire safety. Eight monumental curving staircases of granite with over 4,000 individually cast bronze balusters are capped by four skylight domes and two stained glass rotundas.
G. The history of the EEOB began long before its foundations were laid. The first executive offices were constructed between 1799 and 1820. A series of fires (including those set by the British in 1814) and overcrowded conditions led to the construction of the existing Treasury Building. In 1866, the construction of the North Wing of the Treasury Building necessitated the demolition of the State Department building.
41. à Cà42. à 43. à F à 44 à 45.
Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
Shakespeare’s life time was coincident with a period of extraordinary activity and achievement in the drama. By the date of his birth Europe was witnessing the passing of the religious drama, and the creation of new forms under the incentive of classical tragedy and comedy. These new forms were at first mainly written by scholars and performed by amateurs, but in England, as everywhere else in western Europe, the growth of a class of professional actors was threatening to make the drama popular, whether it should be new or old, classical or medieval, literary or farcical. Court, school organizations of amateurs, and the traveling actors were all rivals in supplying a widespread desire for dramatic entertainment; and (47) no boy who went a grammar school could be ignorant that the drama was a form of literature which gave glory to Greece and Rome and might yet bring honor to England.
When Shakespeare was twelve years old, the first public playhouse was built in London. For a time literature showed no interest in this public stage. Plays aiming at literary distinction were written for school or court, or for the choir boys of St. Paul’s and the royal chapel, who, however, gave plays in public as well as at court.(48)but the professional companies prospered in their permanent theaters, and university men with literature ambitions were quick to turn to these theaters as offering a means of livelihood. By the time Shakespeare was twenty-five, Lyly, Peele, and Greene had made comedies that were at once popular and literary; Kyd had written a tragedy that crowded the pit; and Marlowe had brought poetry and genius to triumph on the common stage - where they had played no part since the death of Euripides. (49)A native literary drama had been created, its alliance with the public playhouses established, and at least some of its great traditions had been begun.
The development of the Elizabethan drama for the next twenty-five years is of exceptional interest to students of literary history, for in this brief period we may trace the beginning, growth, blossoming, and decay of many kinds of plays, and of many great careers. We are amazed today at the mere number of plays produced, as well as by the number of dramatists writing at the same time for this London of two hundred thousand inhabitants. (50)To realize how great was the dramatic activity, we must remember further that hosts of plays have been lost, and that probably there is no author of note whose entire work has survived.
Section III Writing
Write an email to all international experts on campus inviting them to attend the graduation ceremony. In your email you should include time, place and other relevant information about the ceremony.
You should write about 100 words neatly on the ANSEWER SHEET
Do not use your own name at the end of the email. Use “Li Ming” instead. (10 points)
Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the picture below. In your essay, you should
Section I Use of English
【解析】此处考察介词的用法。it’s a necessary condition ____ many worthwhile things (信任是一个必要条件_____许多重要事情) 此处应该是说，信任对许多重要事情来说是一个必要条件。B选项for(对...来说)符合语义，故为正确答案;A选项from(来自于)，C选项like(像...)，D选项on(关于)语义不恰当，故排除。
【解析】此处考察词义辨析和中心一致性原则。第一段首句提出主题句：trust is a tricky business (信任是一个奇怪的东西)。后面进一步对该主题句进行解释说明：On the one hand, it’s a necessary condition ___ for ___ many worthwhile things: child care, friendships, etc. (一方面，信任对许多重要事情来说是必要条件，比如照看孩子，友谊等)，这句话在说信任的好处。On the other hand, putting your ___ in the wrong place often carries a high ____. (另一方面，把...放在错误的地方往往会带来巨大...)，显然这句话依旧在解释主题词“trust”，只有C选项faith(信任、忠诚)与trust属于近义词复现，故正确答案为[C] faith。
【解析】此处考察词义辨析。第一段首句提出主题句：trust is a tricky business(信任是一个奇怪的东西)。后面进一步对该主题句进行解释说明：On the one hand, it’s a necessary condition __ for __ many worthwhile things: child care, friendships, etc. (一方面，信任对许多重要事情来说是必要条件，比如照看孩子，友谊等)，这句话在说信任的好处。On the other hand, putting your ___ in the wrong place often carries a high____. (另一方面，把...放在错误的地方往往会带来巨大...)，显然这句话依旧在解释主题词“trust”，并且根据空格所在句中的关键词“wrong place”，本句应该在说信任不当的弊端，所以空格处应该填入一个负向感情色彩的词，故A选项benefit和D选项hope排除，而C选项debt(债务)带入之后语义不当，故正确答案为[B] price(代价)。
【解析】此处考察动宾搭配问题。上文指出：When people place their trust in an …their brains release oxytocin, a hormone.上文指出当人们产生信任感，大脑就会产生一种荷尔蒙，后面是定语从句，句内的动宾搭配， 可推知这个荷尔蒙能产生令人愉悦的情绪， 并且与后面的trigger同义复现，因此C .produce 正确。
【解析】此处考察上下文信息照应题。上文讲到这种荷尔蒙能够激发一种群居本能，the herding instinct that leads sheep to flock together for safety and promote …with one another，这种本能有两个作用，并用and 连接，所以复现同义and 前面的flock together. 因此选择A. connect
【解析】此处考察上下语境下的名词介词搭配问题。根据上文的结论，下文实验展开分析，Swiss scientists have found that exposure to this hormone puts us….所以研究中要求受试者要先处于这种环境中，所以名词exposure to 构成搭配语义关系，表示“接触”的意思，因此选择to。
【解析】此处考察上下文的信息对应和句内信息对应。上文提到身体会产生荷尔蒙，会给你带来一种愉悦的情绪pleasurable feelings，这个上文结论。实验中exposure to this hormone puts us in a trusting …，因此，根据上下文，试验中，处于这种荷尔蒙环境中，会给人带来情绪;语气;心境;。因此选择 mood。
【解析】此处考察上下文的信息对应和句内信息对应。上文指出，In a study, researchers sprayed oxytocin into the noses of half the subjects ,可推知本句再讲与另外一组受试者比较。故选择A。counterparts. 相对物，相对应的人。
【解析】此处考察上下文的逻辑关系。因为这个句子当中有个词also，说明前文和后文情感是一致的关系。说我们有这两种天赋，对大家来说都是好事，所以需要选择一个正向的情感色彩。只能选择lucky。A选项odd 奇怪的是，B选项funny 有趣的是，D选项ironic 讽刺的是，皆不符合文意。
【解析】此处考察上下文的成分搭配。因为这个句子当中有个词also，说明前文和后文情感是并列平行关系，前后情感应该一致。所以此处只能选择protect 保护我们，符合文意。B选项delight 使高兴; C 选项 surprise 使震惊;D选项monitor 监控皆不符合文意。
【解析】此处考察固定搭配。differentiate between A and B. 介词between表示在A和B之间 , 原文含义为：“4个月大的孩子可以区分出一个可信的人和一个不诚实的人”。
【解析】此处考察成分搭配。原文表达： Sixty toddlers were each______ to an adult tester holding a plastic container. 只有C选项be introduced to sth表示“初次认识某事物”，符合文意。A 选项added 添加;B选项transferred转移;D选项 entrusted 委托，皆不符合文意。
【解析】此处考察介词搭配及词义复现。原文表达：“What’s in here?” before looking into the container…… Each subject was then invited to _________. 只有选择B选项inside 才能和前文所表达的in here和looking into一脉相承。
【解析】此处考察词义复现，属于句子内部的显性线索。根据原文Half of them found a toy; the other half 16 the container was empty… 这是用分号并列的连个句子，都是在讲试验的结果句型结构基本一致，前半句再讲一半的受测者在盒子里面找到了玩具，后半句肯定是再说另半会怎么样，两个小分句的结构基本一致Half of them = the other half，found=16，a toy= the container was empty，所以16题填入的应该是found的同义词，发现的含义，故D为正确选项。
【解析】此处句间逻辑关系，属于句子内部的显性线索。—and realized the tester had 17 them，此句位于破折号后面，是对前面意思的解释说明。前面提到另一半人发现盒子是空的，并且意识到测试者对他们怎么样，既然盒子是空的那么肯定认识到测试者是在戏弄他们，所以作对此题必须要理解tester测试者是主语，宾语是them指的是受测者，主语的意思决定了谓语动词的含义为戏弄，故A fooled为正确选项。
【解析】 此处考察搭配关系，属于句子内部的显性线索。Among the children who had not been tricked, the majority were 18 to cooperate with the tester in learning a new skill, demonstrating that they trusted his leadership. 根据句子结构我们可以看出逗号之前是一个介词短语意为在所有没有被戏弄过的孩子里面，大多数的孩子在习得一种新技能的时候与测试者的合作是怎么样的，demonstrating that they trusted his leadership表明这些孩子信任他的领导，所以既然信任他们就是愿意与其合作，故选择B. willing，与were willing to 构成固定搭配，意为愿意。
19、【答案】[D] In contrast
【解析】此处考察句间的逻辑关系。19, only five of the 30 children paired with the “20” tester participated in a follow-up activity. 通过该句中的only仅仅，可以看出与上文的 the majority of 形成鲜明的对比，19题应该填入的应该是表示转折，与上文形成对比的逻辑关系词。分析四个选项A表示总结，B表示结果，C表示举例子，只有D表示转折，对比，故D为正确选项。
【解析】此处考察词义辨析。19, only five of the 30 children paired with the “20” tester participated in a follow-up activity.该句含义为：在接下来的活动中30个孩子中只有5个孩子与。。。样的测试者能合作，所以结合上文提到的大部分孩子信任测试者，但是5/30属于一小部分，大部分对应的是信任，那么小比例的对应的是不信任，所以 tester的修饰词应该为C，unreliable不可靠的，不可信任的，故C为正确选项。
Section II Reading Comprehension
21、【答案】D Middle-class workers
【解析】根据题干中“threatned”和“automation”定位到第一段首句“the annoyi-ng challenge facing the middle class is one that...for their jobs”中的challenge和第二段的最后三句话，可以得知相对于低收入者和富人，中产阶级受到的冲击最大。
22、【答案】C Issues arising from automation need to be tackled
【解析】根据题干可定位到第三段中的首句“this isn’t to be alarmist”和末句“But ... middle-class workers may need a lot of help adjusting”，but转折句再一次强调了作者的观点，即中产阶级工人需要很多帮助来调整应对问题。同时，末句中”may need a lot of help”同义替换成选项C中的“need to be tackled”，自动化带来的问题需要被解决，得出C答案。
23、【答案】A creative potential
【解析】根据题干中的关键词可定位到第四段第二句“Curriculums—from grammar school to college—should evolve to focus less on memorizing facts and more on creativity and complex communication”。由该句可知，课程应该更关注创造性和复杂的沟通而非记忆事实。所以，应该选C选项creative potential(创造潜能)，同义替换为creativity。
24、【答案】D preventing the income gap from widening
【解析】该题考查作者的观点，根据题干中的关键词可定位到第六段第一句“Finally, because automation threatens to widen the gap between capital income and labor income, taxes and the safety net will have to be rethought”。由该句可知，由于自动化加大了资本收入和劳动力收入的差距，所以应该重新考虑税收和安全网(保障措施)，即税收政策应该避免收入差距扩大，选D选项preventing the income gap from widening。
25、【答案】B possible solutions to it
【解析】作者在文章第一、二段提出问题“中产阶级受自动化危害最大”之后，第三段的末尾句提出中产阶级需要帮助去适应自动化的发展，接下来第四段至第六段介绍解决方法，最后一段表明作者观点。所以应该选B 选项possible solutions to it(解决问题的相应方法)。
26、【答案】[D] social media as a reliable source of news
【解析】双段推理题。根据题目定位到第1段和第2段，双段推理优先考虑双段主旨。第一段中心句为最后一句话：Millennials prefer news from the White House to be filtered through other sources, not a president’s social media platform。“千禧一代喜欢白宫直接发布的消息…而不是总统社交媒体发布的信息”，说明他们不太信任社交媒体。第2段中心为第二句转折之后，说明对于社交媒体的不信任上升。故双段中心都和他们不信任社交媒体相关。结合以上信息，得出社交媒体信息不可靠，选择D。
【解析】词汇释义题。根据题目定位到第2段第2句：Yet as distrust has risen toward all media,people may be starting to beef up their media literacy skills。句子的情感色彩判断，因为逗号前提到“人们对于所有媒体的不信任增加”，可以推知人们应该开始增强其媒体素养的技能，故选A。
28. 【答案】B verify news by referring to diverse sources.
【解析】范例证明题。根据题干定位至第三段第二句话。因为某项研究一般是论据证明前面的论点，故答案应该位于第一句话“Young people who are digital natives are indeed becoming more skillful at seperating fact from fiction in cyberspace.” 说明答案应该“和年轻人更容易把网络中的事实和虚假信息区分开来”，故答案为B“验证新闻的真伪”。为了精确可以在论据中去验证，论据中提到“verify stories”, “cross check sources”和“prefer news from different perspectives”，都是和多重角度验证信息真伪相关的。
29. 【答案】C readers’ misinterpretation
【解析】事实细节题。根据题干定位至第五段第三句found之后a main reason对应the top reason，而原文剩余信息为“reader error”, 所以应该和读者相关。Error应该对应misinterpretation, 故答案为C readers’ misinterpretation。若本句不清晰，下句进一步说明答案的内容，文中misintepretation or exerggeration of actual news进一步印证C为正确答案。
30. 【答案】A A Rise in Critical Skills for Sharing News Online
【解析】全文主旨题。本篇文章属于篇首转折，二段转折之后为全文主旨，yet之后说道：“Yet as distrust has risen toward all media, people may be strarting to beef up their media literacy skills”.“随着对于所有媒体不信任的上升，人们开始增强其媒体素养的技能”，故答案为A。为了验证，可以看篇末，篇末重申主题，so之后讲道“so when young people are critical of an over-tweeting president, they reaveal a mental discipline in thinking skills-and in their choices on when to share on social media.” 更进一步说明和人们批判性看待社交媒体上的新闻相关。
31、【答案】[B] It failed to pay due attention to patients’ rights.
【解析】细节题。根据题干中的NHS, DeepMind和agreement回文定位第一段第四句“It is against that background that the information commissioner, has issued her damning verdict against the Royal Free hospital trust under the NHS, which handed over to DeepMind the records of 1.6 million patients in 2015 on the basis of a vague agreement which took far too little account of the patients’ rights and their expectations of privacy”。根据a vague agreement which took far too little account of the patients’ rights and their expectations of privacy这一部分的语义信息，说明NHS与DeepMind之间的协议没有充分考虑到病人的权利与隐私。这句话的言外之意就是协议未能充分关注病人的权利。故确定答案为选项B，其中failed to是took far too little account的同义改写。
32、【答案】[C] necessary adjustments.
【解析】细节题。根据题干中的NHS trust, 以及Denham’s verdict回文定位第二段第二句“The NHS trust has mended its ways.” 根据第二句的语义信息，NHS trust针对Denham’s verdict已经调整了其与DeepMind的协议内容，故通过同义替换，可确定正确答案为C。
33、【答案】[D] the value of data comes from the processing of it.
【解析】推理题。根据题干，此题定位在第二段最后一句but之后的转折句。“But this distinction misses the point that it is processing and aggregation, not the mere possession of bits, that gives data value”. 这种区分忽视了一个点：是处理和收集赋予数据意义，而不是拥有数据。 选项中的 “processing”和原文中的“processing”原词复现。 选项中的“the value of data”对应原文中的“data value”。因此，D项为正确答案。
34、【答案】[D] the monopoly of big data by tech giants.
【解析】细节题。根据题干此题定位在文中最后一段的第四句。“What matters is that they will belong to a private monopoly which developed them using public resources.”重要的是这些进步属于一个私人垄断企业，而私人垄断企来使用公共资源进行研发。而这正真正的担忧所在。因此，选项D为正确答案, the monopoly of big data by tech giants对应原文中的a private monopoly。
36、【答案】[B] its rigid management
【解析】根据题干判断本题考查因果细节。第一段的前三句都是有关USPS的具体数字，属于细节信息。第四句出现many reasons很多原因。紧接着下面就有fundamentally根本原因是， 所以定位在第一段的最后一句。然后分析这个长难句，USPS 处在squeeze between 1 and 2,中，1是technological change, 2是structure. 2的structure后定语从句：denies management flexibility 对应选项B: rigid management。
【干扰项分析】：选项A，budget文中未有涉及。 选项C，虽然有提到technological ,原文technological change 后的定语从句说的是：技术改革降低需求，并没有提到cost成本问题。选项D，the withdrawal of bank support 银行支持撤销了，原文并没有提及银行支持，直接排除。
37、【答案】[A] the interference from interest groups
【解析】 根据题干due to，判断本题考查因果细节。根据题干关键词：USPS fails to modernize 定位到原文第二段最后一句，在这句前leaving，留下，导致这个结果，往前找原因，前一句提到reform legislation, 而且这句前还有this is why，只要找到代词this指代就可以判断选项。代词往前推，根据这句主干interest groups exerts pressure on Congress选择选项A，interference 对应 exert pressure on。
【干扰项分析】选项B，the inadequate funding from Congress,原文虽然有提到Congress国会，the aspect of status quo get protected, 国会保护USPS，并没有提及inadequate funding基金不足。选项C，the shrinking demand for postal service 邮政需求缩减，文中没有提及。选项D, the incompetence of postal unions 邮政工会的不作为。文章有提到工会，但是只提他们是属于Interest groups,并没有提到无作为。
38、【答案】[A] removing its burden of retiree health care
【解析】 因果细节题。根据38题题干The long-standing complaint by the ....回文定位到第3段，最后一句：“ The latter step would largely offset the financial burden of annually pre-funding retiree health care, thus....” .再根据题干中“ can be addressed by” 即：通过哪种方式解决，此处为解题要点，通过哪种方式来解决，前后明显为结果与途径的关系，即可理解为因果关系。文章此句后半句正是题干，thus前半句为答案The latter step would largely offset the financial burden of annually pre-funding retiree health care。与 A. B . C .D 四个选项匹配后，正确答案为 A removing its burden of retiree health care。
【解析】根据题干可以判断本题为观点态度题。回文定位到最后一段。题干“the author seems to view legislators with”, 具体定位到最后一段倒数第2句：“ The emerging.....is a sign that legislators are getting frightened.......” 再根据题干，问作者最终态度，本段最后一句，转折句是作者最终的态度：“ It is not, however, a sign that they’re getting serious about....” , 即作者认为他们并没有认真对待。所以此处作者态度为否定。匹配A B C D 四个选项 只有C discontent( 不满)为负向信息，所以为正确答案。
40、【答案】[D] The Postal Service Needs more than a Band-Aid
【解析】根据题干特征词“best title”，这是一道主旨题。根据前四道题问的主题，第一道题和第二道题是USPS出现了问题，并分析原因，第三道题给出解决方法，第四道题提到作者对于这个方法的态度，即提出问题—分析问题—解决问题，并在最后给出作者对这个解决方案的评价。根据这个文章框架，首先A选项“USPS开始错过了它的好时光”，这只是提出问题，相对片面;B选项“USPS：不要动我的奶酪”, 这是拒绝解决问题的态度，不符合文章的写作思路;C选项“USPS：慢性病需要快方法”，这个chronic和quick都没有在文中提到;D选项“USPS需要的不仅仅是权宜之计”，这说的其实作者对于解决方案的评价，在文章最后一段。这段最后结尾有But，有however， “it[指代前文讲的方法] is not a sign……”，对此作者表示否定态度。所以D选项为正确答案。
41、【答案】 [E] The Eisenhower Executive Office Building(EEOB) commands a…
【解析】 E段首先介绍EEOB的全称，对全文进行概述提出话题，可选为41题答案。同时，从给定选项C第一句提到the State, War，and Navy Building…，the在此特指，可以作为另一一个线索，在E选项中最后一句，复现了the State, War，and Navy Building...。故41题答案选E。
42、【答案】[G] The history of the EEOB began long before its…
【解析】C选项最后一句谈到了many historic events(建筑内呈现了历史事件)，而G选项第一句提到了the history of the EEOB…(EEOB的历史...)，意思一致，承上启下，故42题答案选G。
43、【答案】[A] In December of 1869, Congress appointed…
【解析】确定G后，根据G选项最后一句，...the demolition of the State Department Building(谈到拆除the State Department Building), 而A选项中谈到了select a site and prepare plans and cost estimates for a new State Department，建立一个新的State Department Building，前后意思顺接，故43题答案选A。
44、【答案】[B] Completed in 1875, the State Department’s south wing…
【解析】 根据给定的F段，首句是段落大意，该句提到了...as the building slowly rose wing by wing(该建筑逐翼展开). 而B选项第一句谈到了...south wing was the first to be occupied(首先坐落在南翼)，然后在B选项最后一句又谈到...moved into the east wing(之后又移至东翼). 先在F段总起，再在B段中分说，前后对应，故44题答案选B.
45、【答案】[D] Many of the most celebrated national figures…
【解析】 B段结尾处谈到了where elaborate wall…decorated the office of the Secretary(这些精美的墙....装饰了秘书处的办公室)，而D段第一句提到了...that have taken place within the EEOB’s granite walls(历史事件在这些EEOB的墙上呈现), the wall原词复现，两句话意思一致，故45题答案选D。
Section III Translation
(46) By the date of his birth Europe was witnessing the passing of the religious drama, and the creation of new forms under the incentive of classical tragedy and comedy.
【句子结构】and并列两个句子，主干分别为：…Europe was witnessing the passing … and the creation of …;of the religious drama为定语修饰the passing;under the incentive of classical tragedy and comedy为状语
【重点词汇】witness 见证 religious宗教的 drama戏剧 incentive刺激
(47) no boy who went to a grammar school could be ignorant that the drama was a form of literature which gave glory to Greece and Rome and might yet bring honor to England.
【句子结构】主句主干：no boy… could be ignorant that…。who引导的定语从句修饰boy， that引导为形容词ignorant的宾语从句，which引导的定语从句修饰a form of literature， gave…and might bring honor…为先行词a form of literature的并列谓语结构。
【重点词汇】grammar school 文法学校 ignorant忽视 literature文学 glory 荣耀
(48) But the professional companies prospered in their permanent theaters, and university men with literary ambitions were quick to turn to these theaters as offering a means of livelihood.
【句子结构】并列句主干分别为：…companies prospered … and university men …were quick to…
【重点词汇】professional 专业的 prosper繁荣 permanent theater永久性剧院
(49) A native literary drama had been created, its alliance with the public playhouses established, and at least some of its great traditions had been begun.
【句子结构】本句是一个由and连接的并列句。and前的句子主干为一个被动语态的简单句：a … drama had been created, with引导一个伴随状语;and后的句子也为一个被动语态的简单句：some of its great traditions had been begun。
(50) To realize how great was the dramatic activity, we must remember further that hosts of plays have been lost, and that probably there is no author of note whose entire work has survived.
【句子结构】本句结构较为复杂，主句部分为“we must remember…”，主句之前的非谓语to realize作为目的状语，后接了一个how引导的宾语从句。主句中，两个that分别引导了两个remember的宾语从句，其中第二个宾语从句中，有一个whose引导的定语从句，修饰author of note。
Section IV Writing
I, on behalf of the Students’ Union, am writing this letter to invite all of you to attend the graduation ceremony.
The ceremony will be held in the Sports Hall of our university on this Friday morning, from 9 a.m. to 11 a.m. The details about the ceremony are as follows. First and foremost, the president will make a speech for the graduates, blessing them to have a bright future. In addition, several experts will be invited to issuing certificates to all the graduates.
It would be a great honor for us to have the accompany of all of you in the graduation ceremony. Therefore, we all hope that you can spare your time to attend it and we are looking forward to your reply to tell us whether you can attend it or not on that day.
Exhibited in the cartoon is a sarcastic scene that sitting before a computer, a college student is choosing his optional class, wondering and pondering whether he should choose an easier course or a tougher but creative course. Simple as the picture is, the symbolic meaning it conveys is profound and thought-provoking.
It is beyond doubt that the painter aims to tell us that everyone, especially college students, should have the spirit of creation and innovation. To put it another way, innovation is an essential and indispensable role for anyone who wants to succeed. This can be directly attributed to the fact that one may be caught in dilemma, at least once in life. Such a dilemma may coincidentally be most difficult period in his life. Then there are two choices before him: making a creative choice or an easier one. If he chooses the former and tries to break through the barrier, difficult as it will be, success will be the result one day. However, although it seems to be much easier for him at the moment, the latter choice may kill off his dream and ambition, and such choice then will be a pity all his life.
As college student, definitely, we are facing or will face many difficulties. At such moment, we should bear in mind that creation is a necessary and indispensable quality in our life, a positive attitude to life and an approach to success. Keep the spirit of innovation, and we will win a better life.
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